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亚博网站注册_鸟嘴医生:恐怖的“死神使者”,瘟疫下的逆行勇者



发布日期:2021-03-15 00:19:02 发布者:Admin5  点击率:

"In the 1348th year after the birth of our Lord, the most beautiful city in Italy-that is the bustling Florence, there was a terrible plague... It first occurred in the East, less than a few years ago. Countless people died... In Florence, the residents died one after another, almost becoming an empty city."

“在我们最伟大的城市-意大利最美丽的城市-繁华的佛罗伦萨-诞生之后的1348年,发生了一场可怕的瘟疫……它最早发生在东方,不到几年前。无数人死亡……在佛罗伦萨,居民接连死亡,几乎变成了一座空城。”

Giovanni Boccaccio

乔凡尼·博卡乔(Giovanni Boccaccio)

This passage comes from "The Decameron" by the Italian Renaissance writer Giovanni Boccaccio. It details the Black Death (the plague) that ravaged all of Europe in the Middle Ages. It is believed to be compatible with Dante’s " A masterpiece on par with the Divine Comedy.

这段文字来自意大利文艺复兴时期作家乔瓦尼·博卡乔(Giovanni Boccaccio)创作的《十美满面》。它详细描述了中世纪席卷整个欧洲的黑死病(瘟疫)。它被认为与但丁的《与神曲》相当的杰作兼容。

Due to the backward medical conditions in Europe in the Middle Ages and people have not yet formed a complete concept for the prevention and control of infectious diseases, the Black Death swept across the entire European continent with lightning speed. According to incomplete statistics, during the outbreak of the Black Death in Medieval Europe, about 30% to 60% of the population died, and the popes and kings people believed in became poor clowns on the way to escape.

由于中世纪欧洲医疗条件落后,人们尚未形成完整的预防和控制传染病的概念,因此“黑死病”以迅雷不及掩耳之势席卷了整个欧洲大陆。据不完全统计,中世纪欧洲爆发黑死病期间,约30%至60%的人口死亡,信奉教皇和国王的人们成了逃脱途中的贫穷小丑。

Doctor Beak

喙医生

In the context of the collapse of the social system and people fleeing around, instead of fleeing the hardest-hit areas of the major plague, a group of people went deep alone and used simple medical equipment to give those people who were suffering from the disease the last hope. These "retrogrades of the times" are the famous plague doctors (also known as Doctor Bird Beak).

在社会制度崩溃和人们逃离​​的背景下,一群人没有逃离主要瘟疫的重灾区,而是独自一人深入深处,并使用简单的医疗设备为遭受疾病困扰的人们提供援助最后的希望。这些“时代的逆转”是著名的瘟疫医生(又称伯德比克医生)。

In 541 AD, Egypt and Abyssinia on the southern border of the powerful Byzantine Empire began to show signs of small-scale plague infection. Due to the lack of preventive measures against infectious diseases, the plague spread by ships to the surrounding areas of the Mediterranean in just a few weeks, and large-scale deaths began to appear immediately.

公元541年,强大的拜占庭帝国南部边界的埃及和阿比西尼亚开始出现小规模鼠疫感染的迹象。由于缺乏针对传染病的预防措施,鼠疫在短短几周内就通过船只传播到地中海周围地区,并开始大规模死亡。

At this time, the senior leaders of the Byzantine Empire began to realize the severity of the epidemic. They successively appointed some doctors with medical knowledge in the city to diagnose and treat patients in order to prevent the spread of the plague throughout the country. However, people knew nothing about the measures to prevent and control infectious diseases at that time. The vast majority of doctors appointed by the Byzantine Empire not only failed to help patients out of the sea of ​​suffering, but there were a large number of deaths due to cross-infection.

这时,拜占庭帝国的高级领导人开始意识到这一流行病的严重性。他们先后任命了一些在城市具有医学知识的医生来诊断和治疗患者,以防止鼠疫在全国蔓延。但是,当时人们对预防和控制传染病的措施一无所知。拜占庭帝国任命的绝大多数医生不仅没有帮助患者摆脱痛苦,而且由于交叉感染而导致大量死亡。

According to The Records of War by the Byzantine historian Pro Kirby, the plague began to break out in the spring of 542 AD and lasted for 4 months. At the beginning of the plague outbreak, the doctors sent by the Byzantine Empire were still able to maintain the number of patients within a controllable range. However, as a large number of doctors died due to cross-infection, the number of people infected with the plague began to increase significantly, with the largest number At that time, more than 10,000 people died as a result.

根据拜占庭历史学家Pro Kirby的《战争记录》,瘟疫在公元542年春天开始爆发,持续了4个月。在鼠疫爆发之初,拜占庭帝国派遣的医生仍然能够将患者人数保持在可控范围内。但是,由于大量医生因交叉感染而死亡,因此感染鼠疫的人数开始显着增加,当时人数最多,因此死亡人数超过10,000。

The rapid increase in the number of deaths made the burial of dead bodies a major problem at the time. At first, cities chose to dig large pits in the suburban barren land to bury the dead. However, with the increase in the number of deaths every day, there is no more space around the city for burial, and helpless people can only begin to divide part of the city into "morgues" for corpses. According to Prokolby’s description, Constantinople, known as the most prosperous city in the world, became an absolute purgatory in this unprecedented plague attack, and the city will never hear singing. Evening songs, you can't see the funeral queue.

死亡人数的迅速增加使得当时埋葬尸体成为一个主要问题。起初,城市选择在郊区的贫瘠土地上挖大坑以埋葬死者。但是,随着每天死亡人数的增加,城市周围不再有埋葬的空间,无助的人只能开始将城市的一部分划分为尸体的“停尸房”。根据Prokolby的描述,被誉为世界上最繁荣的城市君士坦丁堡在这场史无前例的瘟疫袭击中成为绝对的炼狱,而这座城市将永远不会听到歌声。晚上的歌,你看不到葬礼队列。

According to statistics from the authorities of Constantinople, the plague that broke out in the spring of 542 AD caused approximately 230,000 deaths, and Prokobe believes that at least half of the people died in the plague. This is true in the imperial capital, not to mention the remote areas where the level of medical care is more backward (it is estimated that the Justinian plague caused the total population of Europe to plummet by nearly 50%, and it did not recover until more than 200 years later).

根据君士坦丁堡当局的统计,公元542年春季爆发的鼠疫造成约23万人死亡,普罗科比认为至少有一半的人在鼠疫中死亡。在帝国首都,这是事实,更不用说医疗水平更落后的偏远地区(据估计,查士丁尼瘟疫使欧洲总人口暴跌了近50%,直到直到200多年后)。

"Spots, oh, rosy spots

“斑点,哦,玫瑰色斑点

Pocket full of floral fragrance

装满花香的口袋

Ah sneeze! Ah sneeze!

啊,打喷嚏!啊,打喷嚏!

We are all done. "

我们都做完了。 ”

This is a folk song that was widely circulated during the European Black Death in the Middle Ages. Rose refers to the rose-like rash when the Black Death occurred; while the floral fragrance refers to the fact that the dead body could not be treated in time because of the high mortality rate. People can only put various petals in the pockets of the dead's clothes to cover up the odor of rotting. The whole poem seems to eulogize a good life, but it is full of metaphors, suggesting that Europe was in a terrifying environment ravaged by the Black Death.

这是一首民歌,在中世纪欧洲黑死病期间广为流传。玫瑰是指发生黑死病时的玫瑰状皮疹。花香是指由于高死亡率无法及时处理尸体的事实。人们只能在死者衣服的口袋里放各种花瓣来掩盖腐烂的气味。整首诗似乎都在赞美美好的生活,但其中充满了隐喻,暗示欧洲处于黑死病肆虐的可怕环境中。

(The picture comes from Wikipedia)

(图片来自维基百科)

How serious was the Black Death in medieval Europe? As shown in the figure above, due to the lack of prevention and control measures, the Black Death spread throughout the European continent in less than three years, causing approximately 25 million deaths. In order to curb the plague infection and gradually restore the local economy, European countries have appointed a number of doctors to visit the hardest-hit areas of the epidemic. They are mainly responsible for the most basic diagnosis and treatment of patients, recording the number of infections, and organizing the burial of dead bodies.

欧洲中世纪的黑死病有多严重?如上图所示,由于缺乏预防和控制措施,黑死病在不到三年的时间内蔓延到整个欧洲大陆,造成约2500万人死亡。为了遏制鼠疫的感染并逐步恢复当地经济,欧洲国家任命了许多医生前往疫情最重的地区。他们主要负责对患者进行最基本的诊断和治疗,记录感染次数并组织尸体的埋葬。

Some friends may have a hint of doubt when they see this: Since doctors have to go to the hardest-hit area and make frontal contact with patients, do they have any protective measures? To answer this question, we must understand how the European medical community in the Middle Ages recognized the plague infection. Due to limited medical knowledge, medical scientists at that time believed that the Black Death was mainly spread through the air, so they came up with a way to fight off the virus by smelling flowers. Doctors at that time often chose to wrap a few petals around the mouth and nose during the diagnosis and treatment process to resist the virus.

一些朋友在看到这种情况时可能会感到疑惑:既然医生必须去受灾最严重的地区并与患者进行正面接触,他们是否有保护措施?要回答这个问题,我们必须了解中世纪的欧洲医学界如何认识到鼠疫感染。由于医学知识有限,当时的医学科学家认为黑死病主要通过空气传播,因此他们想出了一种通过闻花来抵抗病毒的方法。当时的医生通常在诊断和治疗过程中选择在嘴和鼻子上缠几片花瓣来抵抗病毒。

Charles Delorme (picture from Wikipedia)

查尔斯·德洛尔姆(图片来自维基百科)

It is also under this misunderstanding that a large number of doctors were infected and died in the process of treating patients, and people began to realize that the fragrance of flowers did not have any inhibitory effect on the spread of the Black Death. In 1619 AD, the French medical doctor Charles de Lorme (Charles de Lorme) came to the conclusion after many clinical observations in Europe: The Black Death does not necessarily spread only through the nose and mouth. All are strictly protected.

也正是在这种误解下,大量医生在治疗病人的过程中被感染并死亡,人们开始意识到,花的芬芳对黑死病的传播没有任何抑制作用。公元1619年,法国医学家查尔斯·德·洛尔梅(Charles de Lorme)在欧洲进行了许多临床观察后得出结论:“黑死病”不一定只通过鼻子和嘴传播。全部受到严格保护。

Later, Charles DeLorm invented a set of clothing specially used by doctors to diagnose the plague. The entire costume is composed of a robe coat, a mask and a wooden walking stick. The robe coat is woven with multiple layers of cloth, and the outer layer is covered with high-density wax. This airtight gown can effectively ensure that the doctors will not directly touch the patient when visiting the doctor, and the presence of wax can also effectively prevent infectious fleas or the patient's blood from contaminating the clothes.

后来,查尔斯·德洛姆(Charles DeLorm)发明了一套医生专门用来诊断鼠疫的衣服。整个服装由一件长袍外套,一个面具和一个木制手杖组成。长袍外套是用多层布织成的,外层是用高密度蜡覆盖的。这种气密的礼服可以有效地确保医生在看医生时不会直接接触患者,并且蜡的存在还可以有效地防止传染性跳蚤或患者的血液污染衣服。

On the mask worn by the doctor, Charles Delorm installed transparent glass on the eyes to isolate the patient's tissue fluid, blood or droplets. At the front of the mask there is also a raised part similar to a bird's beak, which is filled with a large amount of aromatic substances (mainly ambergris, melissa, spearmint, camphor, cloves, tincture of opium, rose petals) . At the time, these strong aromatic substances were thought to be able to curb the miasma and reduce the stench from necrotic tissues or corpses of patients.

Charles Delorm在医生戴的口罩上,在眼睛上安装了透明玻璃,以隔离患者的组织液,血液或飞沫。面罩的前部还有一个类似于鸟喙的凸起部分,里面充满了大量的芳香物质(龙涎香,蜜蜂花,留兰香,樟脑,丁香,鸦片tin,玫瑰花瓣)。当时,这些强烈的芳香物质被认为能够遏制黄褐斑并减轻患者坏死组织或尸体的恶臭。

Finally, we will introduce the key tool of plague doctors in diagnosis and treatment-wooden crutches. The official term for this kind of crutches at the time was "indicating stick", which doctors used to avoid direct contact with patients. It is worth mentioning that this wooden crutch has another very important function-to lash patients and forgive sins. Perhaps this kind of effect seems absurd to people nowadays, but it was the only hope of survival for countless patients who fell into despair at that time. People believe that plague is a punishment from heaven, and only through constant lashing can they be saved from original sin.

最后,我们将介绍瘟疫医生在诊断和治疗木拐杖方面的关键工具。当时,这类拐杖的正式用语是“指示棍棒”,医生曾用它来避免与患者直接接触。值得一提的是,这种木制拐杖还有另一个非常重要的功能-鞭打病人并宽恕罪恶。如今,这种效果似乎对人们来说是荒谬的,但这是当时陷入绝望的无数患者唯一的生存希望。人们相信瘟疫是从天上来的一种惩罚,只有通过不断的鞭打才能使他们摆脱原罪。

Because of Charles Delorm’s lofty status in the European medical world at the time (he was the private doctor of several members of the Medici family royal family from 1610 to 1650, and later became Henry IV, Louis XIII and Louis XIV. The chief physician of the three French kings), this kind of plague doctor’s special clothing was immediately spread throughout Europe as soon as it was invented. Because of the crippled masks, these plague doctors were also called "beak doctors" at the time. People hoped that these scary doctors could scare away the virus and bring them healthy bodies.

由于查尔斯·德洛姆(Charles Delorm)当时在欧洲医学界的崇高地位(他在1610至1650年间是美第奇家族王室成员的私人医生,后来成为亨利四世,路易十三和路易十四。法国三位国王),这种瘟疫医生的特殊服装一经发明就立即在整个欧洲传播。由于口罩残缺,这些瘟疫医生在当时也被称为“喙医生”。人们希望这些可怕的医生能够吓走这种病毒,并为他们带来健康的身体。

Under the medieval European social system that was on the brink of collapse because of the Black Death, the beak doctors became the only light in the long darkness. Whenever the sky is dimly light or the night falls, these anti-epidemic fighters who shoulder the hopes of countless patients will appear in major streets wearing heavy robes and conduct diagnosis and treatment from house to house.

在由于黑死病而濒临崩溃的中世纪欧洲社会制度下,喙医生成了漫长黑暗中的唯一光明。每当天空昏暗或夜幕降临时,这些担负无数病患希望的抗流行病战斗机便会穿着长袍出现在主要街道上,并逐户进行诊断和治疗。

Although limited by the backwardness of medical standards, the bloodletting therapy pursued by the beak doctors has almost no effect on the epidemic, but the beak doctors have brought a little bit of hope to countless patients at the most desperate moments and ensured the most Basic social order. The birds' beak doctors also used persistent and arduous research to discover the most basic prevention and control measures such as "isolation" and "cleaning".

尽管受到医学标准落后的限制,喙医生采取的放血疗法几乎对疫情没有影响,但喙医生在最绝望的时刻给无数患者带来了一点希望,并确保了最基本的社会生活。订购。鸟类的喙医生还通过持续不断的艰苦研究来发现最基本的预防和控制措施,例如“隔离”和“清洁”。

Regrettably, although the beak mask was the best anti-epidemic equipment available at the time, there was still no way to withstand the pervasive plague. Most of the beak doctors were brave enough to fight the Black Death. According to statistics, in 1348, almost all doctors in Montpellier, France, died of plague. In Venice, the famous water city in Italy, all medical resources were used up in less than a year, and only 4 of the 24 best physicians remained.

遗憾的是,尽管喙罩是当时最好的抗流行病设备,但仍然没有办法抵御普遍的瘟疫。大多数喙医生都勇敢地与黑死病作斗争。据统计,1348年,法国蒙彼利埃的几乎所有医生都死于鼠疫。在意大利著名的水城威尼斯,不到一年的时间便用尽了所有医疗资源,而在剩下的24位最好的医生中,只有4名幸存下来。

Although their colleagues fell one after another on the road of fighting the epidemic, most of the beak doctors did not retreat because of this. They firmly walked into the hardest hit area every day at dawn or dusk to take care of the patients, and instructed the staff to carry out the treatment of the corpses. Incinerate.

尽管他们的同事在抗击这一流行病的道路上接连摔倒,但大多数喙医生并没有因此而退缩。他们每天黎明或黄昏都坚定地走进受灾最严重的地区,照顾病人,并指示工作人员对尸体进行治疗。焚化。

It is true that the main task of the beak doctors is to go deep into the hardest-hit areas to diagnose and treat the plague victims. However, considering that the social system at that time was close to collapse, the ruling class, including the pope and the king, was already on the road to escape. There is no extra time to manage the life and death of the people at the bottom. As a result, many beak doctors with a strong sense of social responsibility have taken the initiative to take on part of the epidemic prevention organization work. They will investigate the patient's previous whereabouts in detail, trying to find people who have been in close contact with them and isolate them.

确实,喙医生的主要任务是深入受灾最严重的地区,以诊断和治疗鼠疫的受害者。但是,考虑到当时的社会制度即将崩溃,包括教皇和国王在内的统治阶级已经在逃亡的道路上。没有多余的时间来管理底层人民的生死。结果,许多具有强烈社会责任感的喙医生主动参加了防疫组织的工作。他们将详细调查患者以前的下落,试图找到与他们密切接触的人并隔离他们。

There are also many beak doctors who will combine their own understanding of the epidemic to propose various large-scale prevention and control measures to major cities. Gentile of Foligno organized people to set fire to smoke in the street, trying to get rid of the "stinks" that caused the black plague to spread; Agramon advised people not to discard animal organs and excrement near the city. With the help of many beak doctors, major European countries gradually constructed public health systems during the Black Death epidemic. During this period, Italy established a health committee with certain jurisdiction and put forward the slogan of "do everything possible to protect public health and prevent large-scale environmental pollution."

也有很多喙医生会结合自己对流行病的了解,为主要城市提出各种大规模的预防和控制措施。福利尼奥(Foligno)的外邦人组织人们在街上纵火吸烟,试图摆脱造成黑鼠疫蔓延的“臭味”。 Agramon建议人们不要在城市附近丢弃动物器官和粪便。在许多黑嘴医生的帮助下,主要欧洲国家在黑死病流行期间逐步建立了公共卫生系统。在此期间,意大利成立了具有一定管辖权的卫生委员会,并提出了“竭尽全力保护公众健康,防止大规模环境污染”的口号。

It is precisely by virtue of the effective maintenance of the social system that the status of Doctor Bird's Beak in various countries has risen linearly. They not only have the privilege of unrestricted autopsy (the beak doctor was the only occupation with this privilege in medieval Europe), but they will also be awarded the title of "municipal plague doctor" or "district plague doctor", which is useful for their future medical practice It will be of great benefit.

正是由于社会制度的有效维护,各国的伯德博士的地位直线上升。他们不仅有不受限制的尸检的特权(喙医生是中世纪欧洲唯一拥有这种特权的职业),而且还将被授予“市政瘟疫医生”或“分区瘟疫医生”的称号,这对他们未来的医学实践将亚博网站注册大有裨益。

The lofty social status has also led many lawbreakers to regard Doctor Bird's Beak as a bargaining chip for their fortune. In 1650, Barcelona, ​​the famous Spanish port city, sent two beak doctors to Tortosa to support the local epidemic control. However, the two beak doctors were kidnapped by a group of robbers on the road before they reached their destination. The robbers threatened the relevant authorities in Barcelona and demanded that they pay a very valuable ransom. In the end, Barcelona paid the ransom at the request of the gangster and saved the two beak doctors.

崇高的社会地位也导致许多违法者将伯德比克博士视为其财产的筹码。 1650年,西班牙著名的港口城市巴塞罗那派遣了两位喙医生到托尔托萨角,以支持当地的流行病控制。但是,两名喙医生在到达目的地之前在路上被一群强盗绑架。强盗威胁巴塞罗那的有关当局,要求他们支付非常宝贵的赎金。最后,巴塞罗那在the徒的要求下支付了赎金,并救了两名喙医生。

Due to the particularity of his profession, the beak doctor at that time had a strong sense of mystery

由于他的专业特殊性,当时的喙医生有很强的神秘感。

At the same time, due to prolonged access to the worst-affected areas of the Black Death, most cities in Europe at that time strictly prohibited the beak doctors from contacting the public, and many cities even chose to isolate the beak doctors.

同时,由于长时间进入受黑死病影响最严重的地区,当时欧洲的大多数城市都严格禁止喙医生与公众联系,许多城市甚至选择隔离喙医生。

Occupational particularities make it impossible for most beak doctors to enjoy a comfortable life like ordinary people. However, once the epidemic rages, they will walk out of the isolation centers in remote towns or major cities and do their best to help patients escape sea ​​of ​​bitterness.

职业的特殊性使大多数喙医生无法像普通人一样享受舒适的生活。但是,一旦流行病流行,他们将走出偏远城镇或主要城市的隔离中心,并尽最大努力帮助患者摆脱苦海。

Although most of the beak doctors at that time were synonymous with "brave" and "selflessness", we should not ignore the negative impact of some unprofessional ethics and fraudsters.

尽管当时的大多数喙医生是“勇敢”和“无私”的代名词,但我们不应该忽略某些非职业道德和欺诈者的负面影响。

At that time, becoming a beak doctor meant a high salary and excellent social influence. In order to take a shortcut, some young doctors would often choose to falsely report their medical experience and instead use the platform of the beak doctor to quickly build a reputation. They do not have any experience in the prevention and control of infectious diseases, and they often convey completely wrong anti-epidemic concepts to patients during the treatment process. As a result, the epidemic has not been effectively controlled, but the transmission speed has increased day by day.

那时,成为尖嘴医生意味着高薪和出色的社会影响力。为了走捷径,一些年轻的医生经常选择虚假地报告他们的医疗经历,而使用喙医生的平台迅速建立声誉。他们没有任何预防和控制传染病的经验,并且在治疗过程中经常向患者传达完全错误的抗流行病概念。结果,该流行病尚未得到有效控制,但传播速度日益提高。

There are also many beak doctors who will launch so-called "exclusive" treatment plans in the course of practicing medicine. They claim that such treatment plans can greatly curb the spread of the epidemic in people's bodies, but they require high remuneration. Facts have proved that the treatment plan proposed by these beak doctors is completely a means for them to deceive and deceive, and many families have gone bankrupt.

也有许多喙医生将在执业医学过程中推亚博网站注册出所谓的“独家”治疗计划。他们声称,这样的治疗计划可以极大地遏制这种流行病在人体内的传播,但它们需要很高的报酬。事实证明,这些喙医生提出的治疗计划完全是他们欺骗和欺骗的手段,许多家庭已经破产。

Under the temptation of huge profits, the worst type of deception among Doctor Bird's beak also surfaced. They use the trust of the patient to tamper with the will privately after the death of the patient and swallow the property of others. Although major cities have since issued a series of laws to monitor bird beak doctors, there are still many crooks who have never experienced professional medical training into the ranks of bird beak doctors. This situation further aggravated the social contradictions in European countries at that time, and many patients became hostile to Doctor Bird's Beak and refused to implement a series of epidemic prevention measures formulated by the medical school.

在巨额利润的诱惑下,伯德博士喙中最糟糕的欺骗形式也浮出水面。他们利用患者的信任在患者死亡后私下篡改遗嘱,吞噬他人的财产。尽管自那时以来,主要城市都颁布了一系列法律来监管鸟喙医生,但仍有许多骗子从未接受过专门的医学训练,成为鸟喙医生。这种情况在当时进一步加剧了欧洲国家的社会矛盾,许多患者对伯德·比克医生怀有敌意,拒绝执行医学院制定的一系列防疫措施。

Some people say that Doctor Bird’s Beak is a life-killing "God of Death". They walk into the streets and take away one after another. Others say that Doctor Bird’s Beak is a hopeful "angel". Limited medical conditions gave European people hope for life in the dark.

有人说伯德博士的喙是杀死生命的“死亡神”。他们走进街道,一个接一个地带走。还有人说伯德博士的喙是一个有希望的“天使”。有限的医疗条件给欧洲人民带来了黑暗生活的希望。

However, in my opinion, Doctor Bird's Beak was neither a life-killing "god of death" nor a hopeful "angel". They were just individuals with noble qualities in the social environment at that time. Just like the Chinese doctors who are fighting on the front line of the fight against the epidemic today, they do not ask for rewards, are not afraid of life and death, and use their bravery and fearless spirit to relieve the pain of each patient and allow each family to return to completion.

但是,在我看来,伯德博士的喙既不是致命的“死亡神”,也不是充满希望的“天使”。他们当时只是在社会环境中具有高尚品质的个人。就像今天抗击流行病的第一线的中国医生一样,他们不要求报酬,不惧怕生死,并以其勇敢和无畏的精神来减轻每个病人和病人的痛苦。让每个家庭恢复生活。

 
 
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